Laying Out and Sawing Timber

  Plank “A” is flat grained, which wears quicker, slivers more easily, has greater shrinkage, and tends to cup or warp.

Plank “B” is vertically grained, which wears evenly, slivers seldomly, has less shrinkage and tendancy to warp.
  Method “A” produces best quality planks at highest cost and greatest waste.

Method “B” produces high quality planks at lower cost and less waste.

Method “C” costs less with least waste but produces only 1/5 high grade planks.

Method “D” is used to secure large planks and timbers of high quality.
   Bastard Sawing produces variable width planks ranging from vertical to flat grain.
  Uniform width and thickness planks are cut by this method with most having flat grain.